Meat preservation technology
Abstract today, when the shelf life of meat food is still the bottleneck of production and circulation, various new food preservation technologies are also emerging. The fresh-keeping of gas cooking, the development of natural preservatives and the application of fence theory have opened a new vision for us. The preservation of meat food has always been a research topic. With the progress of the times and the change of modern lifestyle and rhythm, the traditional preservation technology of meat food can no longer meet people's needs, and in-depth research on the preservation technology of meat has become increasingly important. Scholars at home and abroad have conducted extensive research on the preservation technology of meat food, and also creatively developed many new meat preservation technologies, but found that any kind of preservation measures have defects, and comprehensive preservation technology must be adopted to give full play to the advantages of various preservation methods, so as to achieve the purpose of complementary advantages and complement each other.
1 cooking and preservation technology with air
it was learned from the second meat science and technology conference in China that a Japanese enterprise has developed the "new cooking and preservation technology with air", the latest technology for food preservation at room temperature.
a new technology for the preservation and processing of aerated food is a food processing technology developed to address the shortcomings of conventional processing methods such as vacuum packaging and high temperature and high pressure sterilization, which are widely used at present. It is through the pretreatment of food raw materials, put them in transparent flexible packaging bags with high oxygen resistance, extract the extruded board, use more and more extensive air, inject inert gas (usually nitrogen) and seal it, and then conduct mild sterilization in the conditioning sterilization pot with multi-stage heating and two-stage cooling. The sterilized food can be stored and circulated at room temperature for 6 ~ 12 months; Because sterilization at moderate temperature and time can perfectly preserve the quality and nutritional components of food, the original taste, appearance, color and flavor of food will hardly change. Natural preservative
2 natural preservative because of its non synthetic characteristics, for the majority of consumers, on the one hand, health is guaranteed, on the other hand, it meets the needs of consumers, so it is the trend of preservative development in the future. Tea polyphenols
2.1 tea polyphenols
tea polyphenols extracted from tea have the property of anti-oxidation and deterioration, and their fresh-keeping effect is reflected in three aspects: in general, anti lipid oxidation, bacteriostasis and deodorizing substances.
2.2 spices extract
many spices contain bactericidal and antibacterial components, which are safe and effective as preservatives after extraction. Such as allicin and Allicin in garlic; Nutmeg volatile oil contained in nutmeg; The volatile oil in cinnamon and clove oil in clove have good bactericidal and antibacterial effects. Nisin is a polypeptide antibiotic synthesized by some Streptococcus lactis. It only acts on Gram-positive bacteria, but has no effect on yeast, mold and Gram-negative bacteria. It is a narrow-spectrum antibacterial agent. Nisin can effectively prevent botulinum toxin Bacillus from acting, and botulinum toxin spore bacteria produced by these bacillus are the main microorganisms of food corruption. At present, there are two ways to apply this new meat preservation technology: one is to inoculate lactic acid bacteria into food in vivo; The other is to separate and utilize its metabolites.
2.4 natural preservatives
the anti-corrosion mechanism and anti-corrosion effect of natural preservatives such as trehalose, mannan, chitosan, lysozyme, casein, etc. are also being studied by scholars at home and abroad. Due to the fear of synthetic preservatives, the development of new natural preservatives has become the mainstream of anti-corrosion research.
3barrier technology, namely barrier theory
meat corruption is mainly caused by three factors: (1) microbial pollution, growth and reproduction; (2) Fat can be called "Big Mac" oxidative corruption; (3) Discoloration of myoglobin. This interaction of factors accelerates meat corruption. For example, the reproduction of microorganisms will promote oil oxidation and myoglobin discoloration; Oil oxidation will also change microbial flora and promote myoglobin discoloration. These three factors change at different speeds under different conditions of pH value, temperature, water activity and other relevant parameters. The barrier theory is to calculate the relevant parameters of food (such as water activity, pH value, temperature, etc.) to obtain the shelf life of food; Since 1997, the layout of this study can also appropriately change various parameters according to needs to make food reach the ideal shelf life.
in order to achieve the storability and health safety of meat food, there must be factors that can prevent the growth and reproduction of residual rot causing bacteria and pathogenic bacteria. These factors are processing and preservative methods. Such as high temperature treatment (f), low temperature refrigeration (T), reducing water activity (AW), acidification (PH), reducing redox (EH), using competitive microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (CF) and chemical preservatives (pre s). These factors are called fence factors. These factors and their synergistic effects determine the stability of food microorganisms, which is called the fence effect. The fence effect is the root of meat preservation. For any kind of meat that can be stored and is hygienic and safe, the complex interaction of the above fence factors controls the corruption, toxin production or beneficial fermentation of microorganisms. These factors cooperate with the joint anti-corrosion and fresh-keeping effect of meat, so it is named fence Technology. With the development of meat preservation technology, there are also many new fence factors, such as pH: microencapsulated Acidifiers; Pressure: ultra high pressure production equipment; Rays: microwave, radiation, ultraviolet, etc; Biochemistry: strains, enzymes, etc; Corrosion protection: hypochlorite, Maillard reaction products, liquid chlorine chelates, alcohol, etc; Others: magnetic vibration field, high frequency radio, fluorescence, ultrasonic, etc. In actual production, different obstacles can be designed according to specific conditions to produce different synergistic effects, so as to extend the shelf life of products. In short, food storage technology and scientific management are inseparable. HACCP management system has become the best management plan recognized by the food industry to ensure food safety. It is the development direction of food enterprise management in China in the future and the basis for the further development of meat preservation technology
source: meat industry Ding jia'an
Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI